From Science Europe Data Glossary
Definition: a data paper (or data publication) takes data that has been used for a research study, or deposited in a repository, and expands on the "why, when and how" of its collection and processing, leaving an account of the analysis and conclusions to a conventional article, perhaps written at a different time and by different authors.
Explanation: Another form of data publication is the "enhanced publication", which integrates underlying datasets into an online article so that readers can interact with the data as they read through the article. Data publications are designed to provide more contextual information about the data, so that readers can understand it better for their own purposes. Data publications provide an opportunity for researchers using the data publication to offer attribution and credit to data creators, as a data publication can be cited within an academic research paper.
See also: data journal