From Science Europe Data Glossary
Definition: data standards are documented agreements on representation, format, definition, structuring, tagging, transmission, manipulation, use, and management of data.
Explanation: data standards provide consistent meaning to data shared among different information systems, programs, and agencies throughout the product’s life cycle. A data standard depicts the required content and format in which particular types of data are to be presented and exchanged.
References: http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/datastds/home/whatisadatastandard/#a2; http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/DataStandardsMedicalDevices/default.htm; http://www.isb.nhs.uk/setting/types/data