From Science Europe Data Glossary
Definition: published data are data sets that are integrated into or connected to an online article so that readers can interact with the data as they read through the article.
Alternative definition: published research data is information distributed or made available to people beyond those involved in data acquisition and administration.
Reference: http://esciencelibrary.umassmed.edu/thesaurus/data-publication; http://cflegacy.research.umn.edu/datamgtq2/data_p.html
See also: types of data; data publication